Institute of Artificial Art Amsterdam



This page lists theoretically oriented writings by IAAA staff and our collaborators at the University of Amsterdam and elsewhere. We also included some articles by others who discuss our work and ideas at a general level. Reviews of specific performances, exhibitions, etc. are not included here. They may be found on the pages of individual departments and projects, accessible through the IAAA home-page.

Algorithmic Visual Art

Pieter Adriaans: "Algoritmische kunst zo oud als de mensheid." Automatisering Gids, 4 juli 2003.

Jos de Bruin: Schaf niet de kunst, maar de kunstenaar af. Ongepubliceerd manuscript, juni 2000.


Jos de Bruin and Remko Scha: "Algoritmische kunst spot met museale waarden." Automatisering Gids, March 14, 2003, p. 15. [Reprinted in: Cees de Boer (ed.): Concrete Kunst & Mathematiek. Reader for an International Symposium at the Mondriaanhuis, Amersfoort, 25 October 2003.]

Peter van Emde Boas: "Mechanized Art and the Mad Mathematician." In: Hein Eberson (ed.): Artificial. Trademark™, Amsterdam, 1993.

Huge Harry: "On the Role of Machines and Human Persons in the Art of the Future." Pose 8 (September 1992), pp. 30-35. Reprinted in: P. Harmsen, E. Koppelman-Valk and M. Vredeling (eds.): Kunst en Technologie: the Beauty and the Beast? Delft: Eburon, 1992, pp. 67-73.

Huge Harry: "Humans and computers; copies and creations." Artis, 's Hertogenbosch. Tools & Tales. January 30, 1994.

Huge Harry: "A Computer's View on the Future of Art and Photography." In: Si Yuill (ed.): STRUT. An Elevator Publication. Street Level Gallery, Glasgow, 1997. (First presented as a lecture at: Still Photography? The International Symposium on the Transition from Analog to Digital Imaging. University of Melbourne, April 1994.)


Paul B.M. Panhuysen, Jan Lanting and Remko J.H. Scha: "Situasies." Museumjournaal 12, 7 (1967).


Remko J.H. Scha: "Visuele patronen volgens formele procedees." In: Paul Panhuysen. Schilderijen, situasies, ordeningssystemen en omgevingsontwerpen. Exhibition Catalogue. Eindhoven: Van Abbemuseum, 1978, pp. 38-59.

[English translation by Lucas Van Beeck: "Visual patterns according to formal procedures." In: Paul Panhuysen (ed.): Number Made Visible. The story of the magic square of 8 by Benjamin Franklin. Eindhoven: Het Apollohuis / Breda: Tijdschrift # 11, 1997.]

Remko Scha: "Artificiële Kunst." Informatie en Informatiebeleid 6, 4 (1988), pp. 73-80. Reprinted in Zeezucht 4 (1991), pp. 29-34, in HTV De IJsberg 12 (November 1996), and in Rob Wiche (ed.): Het Paradoxale van de Oneindigheid, Studium Generale, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, September 1997, pp. 77-82.

Remko Scha: "Computer/Art/Photography." Perspektief 37 (1989), pp. 4-10.

Remko Scha: "Computer/Language." Mediamatic 6, 2/3 (1991), p. 95.

Remko Scha: "De Kunstkunstenaar." Natuur en Techniek 60, 7 (1992), pp. 526-539.

Remko Scha: "On Art History." In: Hein Eberson (ed.): Artificial. Trademark™, Amsterdam, 1993, pp. 50-51.

Dirk van Weelden: "Een ideaal, een naam, een verkenner." In: Hein Eberson (ed.): Artificial. Trademark™, Amsterdam, 1993. Extended version with English translation ("An ideal, a name, an explorer") in: Perspektief 47/48, Digital Issue(s) (June 1994), pp. 42-51.


Marion Wester: "Mensenkunst, een paradox." Interview with Artificial. Rossinant # 5 (January 1994).

Algorithmic Architecture

Jos de Bruin and Remko Scha: "Algoritmische architectuur is toegepaste toevalskunst." Automatisering Gids, April 25, 2003, p. 17.


P. Dauvellier, E. Vreedenburgh, W. van den Kamer, R. Scha and H. Scholten: Spelregels en toeval als planningsfactoren (STAP). Rapport aan de Rijksplanologische Dienst. 1995.

Remko Scha and Eric Vreedenburgh: "Vers une autre Architecture." ["Towards a different architecture."] Zeezucht 7, 8 (1994), pp. 6-14.


Remko Scha: "De Bouwkunst." In: W.J. de Ridder (ed.): "Het Nieuwe Rode Boekje. Citaten uit het werk van Mau Tse-Toeng. Citaten uit het Boek 'De Onvermijdelijke Culturele Revolutie." (Den Haag: Stichting Maatschappij en Onderneming, 1998.)

Remko Scha: "Towards an Architecture of Chance." In: Hans Konstapel, Gerard Rijntjes and Eric Vreedenburgh (eds.): De Onvermijdelijke Culturele Revolutie. (Den Haag: Stichting Maatschappij en Onderneming, 1998), pp. 105-114. [In Dutch.]


Joram Schaap: Evolution and Games. (Working with the Formless City.) University of East-London, School of Architecture, 1995.


Eric Vreedenburgh and Remko Scha: "The Artificial City." In: Flip ten Cate (ed.): De Vrije Ruimte. Nieuwe Strategieën voor de Ruimtelijke Ordening. Amsterdam: Stichting Ontwerpen voor Nederland, 1998, pp. 154-155. [In Dutch.]

Mechanical, Electronic and Algorithmic Music

Markwin J. van den Berg: Aspects of a Formal Theory of Music Cognition. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Amsterdam, 1996.


Jos de Bruin and Remko Scha: "Iedereen zijn eigen DJ." Automatisering Gids, June 27, 2003. p. 17.

Arthur Elsenaar and Remko Scha: "Voor Automatische Radiostations in de Vrije Ether."

Huge Harry: " A Computational Perspective on Twenty-First Century Music." Contemporary Music Review, 14, 3 (1995), pp. 153-159. (Proceedings of the Conference "Leaving the Twentieth Century. Ideas and Visions for New Music", Bretton Hall University College, 28-30 March, 1994.)

Huge Harry: Letter of recommendation for the project "Radio Dom" (fragment). Catalogue Panorama 2000, Centraal Museum, Utrecht, 1999, pp. 130-131.

Huge Harry: "Radio for Everyone; a Computer's Reflections on the Future of Broadcasting." In: Eric Kluitenberg (ed.):  New Media Logbook KUNST.NRW.NL, pp. 28-29. Amsterdam: De Balie, September 1999. [Reprinted in: Michael Fahres and Othmar Schimmel (eds.):  Soundscapes be)for(e 2000, pp. 43-46. Amsterdam: Centre for Electronic Music, 1999.]


Christiane ten Hoopen: Perceptions of Sound; Source, Cause and Human Presence in Electroacoustic Music. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Amsterdam, 1997.


Remko Scha: "Music and Mechanics." In: D. Raaymakers (ed.): Anti Qua Musica. The Hague: SDU, 1989. Pp. 67-72. [In Dutch.]

Remko Scha: "Virtual Voices." Mediamatic 7, 1 (1992), pp. 27-42.

Visual Perception



Mohammad Mehdi Dastani: Languages of Perception. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Amsterdam, 1998. ILLC Dissertation Series 1998-05.


Mehdi Dastani, Bipin Indurkhya and Remko Scha: "Modeling Analogical Projection in Pattern Perception." Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 15, no. 4 (2003).

Mehdi Dastani and Remko Scha: "Languages for Gestalts of Line Patterns." Journal of Mathematical Psychology, Vol. 47 (2003), pp. 429-449.


Mehdi Dastani, Remko Scha and Bipin Indurkhya: "An algebraic method for solving proportional analogy problems involving sequential patterns."  Mind II: Computational Models of Creative Cognition (Dublin, September 1997), pp. 1-15.

Remko Scha and Rens Bod: "Computational Esthetics." Informatie en Informatiebeleid 11, 1 (1993), pp. 54-63.

Automatic Visualization

Rens Bod, Mehdi Dastani, Hub Prüst, Remko Scha and Henk Zeevat (eds.): HCI from a Discourse Perspective. ESPRIT report. HCRC, Edinburgh University, 1993.

Rens Bod and Remko Scha: "Deriving optimal network diagrams by means of structural information theory." ESPRIT report. HCRC, Edinburgh University, 1993.

Jos de Bruin and Remko Scha: "A Republic of Information Designers." In: Proceeedings of Vision Plus 4, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, March 26-29, 1998, pages 14 - 25.


Jörg von Engelhardt: The Language of Graphics. A framework for the analysis of syntax and meaning in maps, charts and diagrams. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Amsterdam, 2002.


Yuri Engelhardt, Jos de Bruin, Theo Janssen and Remko Scha: 'Spatial semantics: how information is encoded in the structure of graphics'. In: Proceedings 1997 Conference on Computer-Human-Interaction.


Yuri Engelhardt, Jos de Bruin, Theo Janssen and Remko Scha: 'The visual grammar of information graphics'. In: J.C.B. Damski and N.H. Narayanan (eds): Workshop Notes Visual Representation, Reasoning and Interaction in Design, Artificial Intelligence in Design '96, Stanford University.


Dejuan Wang: Studies on the Formal Semantics of Pictures.Ph.D. Dissertation, 1995. ILLC Dissertation Series 1995-04.


Huge Harry: "On Algorithmic Literature." The World Series on Culture and Technology. ACS-i Video-Conference. Presented at the Technology Museum in Delft, with live video-links to the Dutch Design Institute in Amsterdam, SCAN in Groningen, and the McLuhan Institute in Toronto. October 19, 1995.

Huge Harry: "De programmerende aap." ["Apes that program."] Psychologie Magazine, October 1999, p.7. [A preliminary version of this article was published as "De mens als programmerende aap" in: Ad Bergsma, Ronald van Gelder, Heleen Peverelli, Oda Verkuijl, Maja Vervoort and Annemieke Willemsen (eds.): Aftellen. Amsterdam: Weekbladpers Tijdschriften, 1999, pp. 90-92.]

About the IAAA

Huge Harry and Eric Kluitenberg: "Human Art is Dead. Long Live the Algorithmic Art of the Machine. A Mute exclusive Interview with Huge Harry by Eric Kluitenberg." Mute 19 (February 1998), pp. 14-21.

Lino Hellings: "Ongedisciplineerde Kunst in Nederland. Inventarisatie van Theorie en Praktijk." December 2002.


Sophie Tates: "Remko Scha & Arthur Elsenaar"  In: Andreas Broeckmann, Esther Hemmes, Marten Jongema & Sophie Tates: Deep Screen. Art in Digital Culture. Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum, 2008, pp.10-11, 55-60.

Luuk Bouwman: "Huge Harry and the Institute of Artificial Art Amsterdam". 1999.

Frieder Nake remembers that the notion of "Artificial Art" was first used (in German: "Künstliche Kunst") by Max Bense in a discussion about the first exhibition of computer graphics by Georg Nees in Stuttgart, 1965. Nake used it in the title of his essay "Künstliche Kunst – zur Produktion von Computer-Grafiken", which was published in H. Ronge (ed.): Kunst und Kybernetik, Cologne, 1968.