IAAA Visual Art Projects           IAAA    



"Artificial" is a family of aleatoric art generation programs. Each of these programs computes random samples from an infinitely large and stylistically varied set of pictures, defined by a "visual grammar". The programs employ different media, and their grammars assume different sets of basic elements and operations.

The research goal of the Artificial project is to define a cognitively viable characterization of the set of all possible images, and to develop algorithms which sample in an unbiased fashion from that space of possibilities.

Exhibitions by Artificial display hardcopies of output images or demonstrate the program's real-time performance on CRT displays or data-projectors.

Artificial.Mac is a HyperTalk program which runs on Apple Macintosh computers. It produces low resolution black & white graphics. 


Artificial.PC is a Pascal/Assembler program which runs under DOS on IBM-compatible PC's.  It produces high resolution color images, and also generates electronic music.

Artificial.ACAD is an AutoLISP program which invokes AutoCAD commands. It produces DXF's of sculptures or buildings. 

Een korte Nederlandstalige samenvatting van de werking van Artificial.PC vindt u in: Artificial op het Nomadisch Paviljoen (Den Haag, 1998).

Publications by Artificial

"Mensenkunst, een paradox." Interview with Artificial by Marion Wester. Rossinant # 5 (January 1994).

Untitled # 1 - # 154." On: Toine Ooms (ed.): Tools and Tales. CDROM. Den Bosch: Creative Disk, 1995.

"Untitled Images" On: Bram van Waardenburg (ed.): Verbindingen. CDROM. Rotterdam: Centrum Beeldende Kunst, 1996. (ISBN 90-5196-102.2)

Theory about Artificial


Max Bruinsma: "Dialogue Between Two Souls." In: Hein Eberson (ed.): Artificial. Trademark™, Amsterdam, 1993.


Hilde Cordesius: Is kunst, die door computers gegenereerd wordt, verzamelbaar? Werkstuk Kunstgeschiedenis, Universiteit van Amsterdam. 1994.


Hein Eberson (ed.): Artificial. Trademark™, Amsterdam, 1993. (With contributions by Max Bruinsma, Peter van Emde Boas, Paul Groot, Remko Scha and Dirk van Weelden.)

Peter van Emde Boas: "Mechanized Art and the Mad Mathematician." In: Hein Eberson (ed.): Artificial. Trademark™, Amsterdam, 1993.

Remko Scha: "Artificiële Kunst." Informatie en Informatiebeleid 6, 4 (1988), pp. 73-80. Reprinted in Zeezucht 4 (1991), pp. 29-34, and in HTV De IJsberg 12 (November 1996).

Remko Scha: "Computer/Art/Photography." Perspektief 37 (1989), pp. 4-10.

Remko Scha: "Computer/Language." Mediamatic 6, 2/3, 1991, p. 95.

Remko Scha: "De Kunstkunstenaar." Natuur en Techniek 60, 7 (1992), pp. 526-539.

Remko Scha: "On Art History." In: Hein Eberson (ed.): Artificial. Trademark™, Amsterdam, 1993, pp. 50-51.

Remko Scha and Eric Vreedenburgh: "Vers une autre Architecture." Zeezucht 7, 8 (1994), pp. 6-14.

Dirk van Weelden: "Een ideaal, een naam, een verkenner." In: Hein Eberson (ed.): Artificial. Trademark™, Amsterdam, 1993. Extended version with English translation ("An ideal, a name, an explorer") in: Perspektief 47/48 (June 1994), pp. 42-51.


Stephen Wilson: "Artificial Intelligence." In: Stephen Wilson: Information Arts. Intersections of Art, Science and Technology. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2002, pp. 787-811.