Music Department             Institute of Artificial Art Amsterdam     


The Machines

are a group of electric motors
who play electric guitars

   Installations and Concerts
   Radio, TV, Film, Video
   Interviews with Roadies and Technicians

The Machines are a group of fan motors, electric drills and electric sabre saws. They play electric guitars by means of rotating strings, rotating metal brushes, vibrating metal bars and vibrating ropes. When the rotating/vibrating speeds of the motors are varied, different rhythms emerge from their interaction with the guitars.


"Twice strings on overstrung guitar constant speed (high)." On: Michael Gibbs (ed.): Sound Art Anthology. C60 Audio Cassette. Amsterdam: Artzien, 1980.


"Excerpt from 'The Machines'." On: Barbara Ess and Glenn Branca (eds.): Just Another Asshole 5 (1981). 33 rpm LP. New York, NY.

Guitar Mural # 1. C60 Audio Cassette. Groningen: Taal Beeld Geluid, Corps de Garde. 1982.

Machine Guitars. 33 rpm LP. Eindhoven: Kremlin Products, KR006. 1982. (Cover art work by The Machines.)


"2nd / 4th." On: Nasmak (ed.): Indecent Exposure 5 (1982). C90 Audio Cassette. Amsterdam: Plurex.
[With Toon Bressers, drums.]


"Roll Over Eindhoven." On: Sabine Kamstra (ed.): De Appel 3 (1984). C60 Audio Cassette. Amsterdam: De Appel.


"HGM2." On: Dutch Difficult Music. 33 rpm LP. Tilburg: Eksakt Records, 1985.

As Is. 70' Audio CD. Amsterdam: Helmholtz Theater / Staalplaat. 1990. Production: Van Lagestein.

Re-release Machine Guitars. 33 rpm LP. San Francisco: Superior Viaduct, 2018.

Re-release Guitar Mural 1 feat. The Machines. 2LP + Digital. Australia: Black Truffle Records, 2021.


 Installations and Concerts


Poort van Kleef, Eindhoven, April 1980. Guerilla Support Act for Bauhaus.

TR3, New York NY, April 1980. Triple bill with Didgital Music (Wharton Tiers) and Glenn Branca Band.


A's, 330 Broome St., New York NY, April 16, 1980. Concert. Curator: Arlene Schloss.


De Lik, Amsterdam. September 13, 1980. Geluidskunst. ("Uitmarkt"-presentatie Artzien / Galerie 'A'.) Concert. Curators: Michael Gibbs & Harry Ruhé.


Pictura, Dordrecht. 1980. Concert with Toon Bressers (Nasmak), drums.


  De Fabriek, Eindhoven.
June 1980. Concert.


De Effenaar, Eindhoven. 1980. Concert, accompanied by Z'ev, percussion. Curator: Ton van Gool.


Palais des Congrès, Liège. November 29, 1980. Soirée Sous-terrienne (pour Humains et Autres). Double bill with Tuxedo Moon. Curators: Paul Pacquai & Françoise Lerusse. Video-recording for RTBF Liège (Rock around Liège / Festival du Futur).


't Hoogt, Utrecht. March 11, 1981. De Muziek van het Materiaal. Triple bill with Z'ev and Glenn Branca Band.

Jack Visser Gallery, Amsterdam, May 30 - June 6, 1981. Installation.


De Vleeshal, Middelburg. June 29 - July 1, 1981. Installation. Curator: Ad Visser.


Oktopus, Amsterdam. October 7, 1981. Concert.


Grand Theatre, Groningen. October 9, 1981. Double bill with Z'ev. Curator: Van Lagestein.


Art Academy, Arnhem. October 28, 1981. Concert.

Corps de Garde, Groningen, October 22- 24, 1981. Installation "Guitar Mural # 1". Production: Van Lagestein.


't Hoogt, Utrecht. February 16, 1982. Concert.


De Effenaar, Eindhoven. March 18, 1982. Concert.


Art Academy, Rotterdam. March 24, 1982. Concert.


Apollohuis, Eindhoven. March 28, 1982. Concert.


Paradiso, Amsterdam. May 6, 1982. D-Day. Concert.


Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller, Otterlo, May 15, 1982.
Concert. [35 mm film recording by Polygoon Journaal]


Art Academy, Utrecht. September 3, 1982. Concert.


Sur+, Hasselt. September 7, 1982. Concert.


ZNLO, Delft. 1982. Concert.


Grand Theatre, Groningen. February 17, 1983. (Double bill with Ned Rothenberg, saxophone.) Production: Van Lagestein.


Apollohuis, Eindhoven, May 26-27, 1983. Installation. (With Machine Drawings.)


Paradiso, Amsterdam, March 1983. Concert. Double bill with Z'ev. Curator: Mark Tegefoss.

Carré, Amsterdam, June 15, 1983. "Aanvallen van Uitersten." Presented by Moniek Toebosch. During this performance, Sabre Saw #3 burned alive on stage. Also: Monks from Tuva presented by Marina Abramowicz, metal-thrashing by Z'ev, &c. Live broadcast by VPRO TV (Dutch national television).


ICA, London, July 12, 1983. WOMAD Festival (Double Bill with 23 Skidoo.)


Dancetaria, New York, 1983. (Video-recording by Arlene Schloss.)


Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, October 22, 1983. Concert.


Metropole, Berlin, 1983.
(Double Bill with Fad Gadget.)


Haags Gemeentemuseum,
The Hague, January 21 / 22, 1984. Concerts  



The Kitchen, New York, February 19, 1984.
Double Billl with Tim Wright's Modern Living Guitar Massage
(Tim Wright, Sally Berg, Bond Bergland, Rudolph Grey,
Donald Heller, Doug Weiselman).


Steirischer Herbst, Graz, Austria, September 20, 1984. Concert.

Szabadidö Központ Almassy Tér, Budapest, November 13, 1984. Minimal Art Festival. Concert.


Pulitzer Art Gallery, Amsterdam, November/December 1984. Installation. (With Automatic Drawings by The Machines, visual art by Frits Woudstra, electronic music scores by Ton Bruynèl.)


New Langton Arts, San Francisco,
February 12-16, 1985.
Installation and concerts.


Shaffy Theatre, Amsterdam. July 11-13, 1985. "Een enkele reis naar zee." Dance performance by Arnold Goores. Choreography: Arnold Goores. Music: The Machines (from the LP "Machine Guitars"). Text: Hans Lodeizen and Robert Graves.


The Knitting Factory, New York, May 3 - May 10, 1987. Installation. Concerts on May 3 and May 10.


INKA Digital Arts, YTECH, Amsterdam, 1989. Machines at Work. Installation. Production: Van Lagestein.

Haags Gemeentemuseum, Den Haag. August 28 - October 29, 1989. "Anti Qua Musica", curated by Dick Raaymakers. (Also including Chilius van Bergeyk, Michael von Biel, John Cage, Mauricio Kagel, Nam June Paik, Dick Raaijmakers, Horst Rickels, Jon Rose and Karlheinz Stockhausen.) Installation. Live concerts on August 27, September 17, and October 29.


Hogeschool voor de Kunsten, Faculteit Kunst, Media en Technologie, Utrecht. December 1989. Installation with concerts (December 6 and 14), and with a lecture by Remko Scha: "Chance Art, Formal Grammars and Perception Theory" (December 6).


Technische Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Architektur, January 17, 1990. (Symposium "Intuition und Logik", organised by Galerie und Architekturforum Aedes.) With lectures by Kas Oosterhuis, Remko Scha, Fritz Zabransky and others.


Kruithuis, Groningen. Vereniging voor Onderwijs, Kunst en Wetenschap. April 24, 1990. Concert for Four Sabre Saws. With a lecture by Henk Verkuyl.


Galerie Geert Schriever, Amsterdam. March 22 - April 1, 1991. Installation and concerts. (With Machine Drawings.)


De Zonnehof, Amersfoort, September 10 - October 13, 1991 The Synthetic Dimension. (Curator: Kas Oosterhuis.) Installation and concert.


Universiteit Twente, Enschede. TARt Festival. October 4, 1991. Concert.


Théatre de la Monnaie / Muntschouwburg, Brussels, 1992. Concert. (Double bill with Gary Lucas, "The Golem".)


PONG Festival, Brown University / RISDE, Providence, RI, USA. Concert. March 8, 1996.


Arti et Amicitiae, Amsterdam. Installation "No Guitars." (Exhibition "Mu", curated by Paul Groot and Peter Mertens.) December 13, 1997 - January 11, 1998.

May 6- May 28, 2000. Temporary Branch Office Rotterdam of the Institute of Artificial Art. TENT. Centrum Beeldende Kunst. Witte de Withstraat 50, Rotterdam. Concerts by The Machines on May 13, May 20, and May 26. With an installation by Artificial and concerts by The Solenoids.


Consortium, Oostelijke Handelskade, Amsterdam. October 28, 2000. An Evening with the Institute of Artificial Art. Program in conjunction with the exhibition Driessens/Verstappen by Edwin Driessens and Maria Verstappen. Also including an audiovisual performance by Artificial, music by The Solenoids, and a lecture by Huge Harry.

Haagse Kunstkring, Den Haag, June 16 - 19, 2016. 125 jaar HKK: Het X - Over DNA. Concert.

Radio/TV Broadcasts

WKCR-FM, Columbia University, New York. 1980 and 1981.
(Mark Abbott: Aspects of Minimalism.)

Pacifica Radio, Berkeley. 1982. (With interview by Charles Amirkhanian.)

Aanvallen van Uitersten, VPRO (Dutch National Television), 1983. Live broadcast from Carré, Amsterdam, presented by Moniek Toebosch.

VPRO (Dutch National Radio), 1983. Live concert from 't Hoogt, Utrecht.

WFNX. 1986.

VPRO (Dutch National Radio), 1989. Live concert from Anti Qua Musica
(Haags Gemeentemuseum), presented by Michael Fahres.

Het Klokhuis. January 12, 1995 and September 5, 1996. NPS, Nederland 3. (Children's program on Dutch National Television.)


Films & Video's

Paul Paquay (RTBF Liège): Video registration of a concert by The Machines at the Palais des Congrès, Liège (Belgium), November 29, 1980. Soirée Sous-terrienne (pour Humains et Autres). (Rock around Liège / Festival du Futur.) Presented at: Rock Around TV (Foyer Culturel de Seraing, December 5, 1981); Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels (December 15 - 27, 1981).

Polygoon Journaal: Highlights from a concert by The Machines in Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller, Otterlo, May 15, 1982. Shown in all movie-theaters in the Netherlands, June 1982.


"Huge Harry and the Institute of Artificial Art." Video documentary including highlights from concerts by The Machines in Carré, Amsterdam (June 1983) and in TENT., Rotterdam (May 2000). Interviews about The Machines with Kim Gordon, Huge Harry, David Lynton and Thurston Moore. Director: Luuk Bouwman.


Concert Reviews


Anon.: "Machine Guitars." In: Kim Searcy (ed.): New Langton Arts 1985, New Langton Arts, San Francisco, 1986, p. 6.


Fer Abrahams: "Luchtalarm." Oor, March 1981.


Lynden Barber: "Reviews. 23 Skidoo. ICA, London." Melody Maker, July 23, 1983, p.17.


Ron Blansjaar: "Vage filosofie bij Artrock." Utrechts Nieuwsblad, March 12, 1981.


Alfred Bos: "De Toevalsfactor." Oor, June 3, 1981.


Hein Calis: "Elektrische geluidsobjecten in Gemeentemuseum Den Haag." De Volkskrant, January 23, 1984.


Eddy Determeyer: "Visueel geluid in Grand." Nieuwsblad van het Noorden, October 10, 1981.


Eddy Determeyer: "Gestructureerd geluid in Grand." Nieuwsblad van het Noorden, February 18, 1983, p. 23.


Corné Evers: "Minimal music brug tussen muzieksoorten." Eindhovens Dagblad, April 2, 1983.

Kim Gordon & Thurston Moore (Sonic Youth) and David Lynton talk about the early days of The Machines and their influence on Heavy Metal and Grunge. (Interview by Luuk Bouwman, 2000.)


Frits Lagerwerff: " 'Aanvallen op het gezellige midden.' VPRO produceert anti-tv in ideeloze Carré-shows." Trouw, June 17, 1983.


C.M.: "Zeit der Elektronik: Töne und Gegentöne." Tagespost, September 22, 1984.


Brigitte Oberleitner: "Handgemachtes Fernsehen und Musik für Meditation." Neue Zeit, September 22, 1984.


Kees Polling: "Boventonen." Oor 12, 6 (March 26, 1983).


Edward Rothstein: "Avant-Garde: 2 Composers." The New York Times, February 22, 1984.


Elly de Waard: "Geluidsritueel met ijzer, pauken en motoren. Primitieve schoonheid in Scha's ketelmuziek." De Volkskrant, March 5, 1983.


Gerard J. Walhof: "Berlin." Vinyl4, 1 (January 1984).


Henk Willemse: "Cultuur bij de VPRO radio en TV." VPRO, June 25, 1983 (# 26), p. 3.


Martin Zechner: "Kosmos-Paradies und der Film zur Zeit." Kleine Zeitung, September 22, 1984, p. 20.


Record Reviews


Anon.: "Muziektheater." Vinyl 3, 23 (March 1983), p. 6.


Anon.: Kremlin. "Label voor niet-commerciële muziek." Kijk uit 2, 7 (March 1983).


Anon.: "Rockin' Russians." Sounds, October 22, 1983, p. 45.


Alfred Bos: "Remko Scha. Machine Guitars (Kremlin Products, KR 006)." Oor 12, 2 (January 26, 1983).

Mark Dery: "Remko Scha's Sawtoothed Tremors." Guitar Player, August 1992, p.14.


Mason Jones: "Remko Scha and the Machines 'As Is (Guitar Mural #14)' CD", bbn.internet.nm-list, October 5, 1991.

Alan Licht's Minimal Top Ten.


Joost Niemöller: "Remko Scha / Machine Guitars / Kremlin Products KR 006 / Elpee" Vinyl 2, 20 (December 1982), p. 40.


John Rockwell: "Popular music takes a serious turn." The New York Times, June 26, 1983.


John Schaeffer: "Machine Guitars (Kremlin KR-006)." In: John Schaeffer: New Sounds. A Listener's Guide to New Music. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.


Interviews with roadies and technicians


Marianne Brouwer: "Be kind to the mediocre people. An interview with Remco Scha." The Kremlin Mole, March / April 1986.


William Davenport: "Remko Scha" Unsound 1, 4 (1984). Unsound/Autotext Publications, San Francisco.


Corné Evers: "Willie Wortel en zijn Workmates." Oor, March 24, 1984, pp. 32-34.


Frans Hemelaar: "De Puinhoopmachines." Vinyl, February 1982 (# 11).


Cor van Litsenburg: "Remco Scha, bouwt gitaarmachines. 'Muziek als het ruisen van de zee.'" Eindhovens Nieuwsblad, April 5, 1983.


Kees Polling: "De Klank van het Mechaniek." Plug 16, 185 (May 1983), pp. 6/7/10.


Kees Polling: "Geluid als muziek." Algemeen Dagblad, June 15, 1983.


Kees Polling: "Machinaal." Muziek & Dans, November/December 1983 (# 11/12), pp. 9-12.


Sjoerd Punter: " 'Akelige geluiden daar hou ik van.' " Eindhovens Dagblad, October 15, 1981, p. 31.


Jaap Stam: " 'Ik duik nogal in dat geluid, gewoon mentaal.' " Folia 45, 28 (March 6, 1992).


Frans de Waard: "Remko Scha (and The Machines)." H23, 3 (December 1991). The Minimal(ism) Issue, pp. 12-15. Noisingplace Research, Athens, Ohio.


Niels Wiedenhof: "Remko Scha en 'The Machines'. Decoupeerzaag, ventilator en staalborstel bespelen gitaar." Philips Koerier, September 29, 1983, p.2.


Niels Wiedenhof: "Immanuel Kant in de praktijk. Huge Harry en de volledig autonome machinekunst." De Ingenieur, 110, 8 (May 6, 1998), pp. 6-11.


Rik Zaal: "De Menselijke Geest Transformeren. Aanvallen van Uitersten III: Techniek." VPRO, June 11, 1983 (# 24), pp. 6-11.




Tak Kenjo: Electric Motors and their Controls: An Introduction. Oxford University Press, 1991.

Remko Scha: "Automatische Muziek / The Machines." Artzien 2, 9 (September 1980), pp. 24/25.


Remko Scha: "The Machines" Ear Magazine 9, 1 (May/June 1984).


Remko Scha: "Muziek en Mechanica." In: Dick Raaymakers (ed.): Anti Qua Musica. Den Haag: SDU, 1989. Pp. 67-72.