Institute of Artificial Art Amsterdam, Department
of ArtiFacial Expression
A New Perspective on the Cooperation
between Humans and Digital Computers.
[:nh] [:ra 120] Good afternoon\, Ladies\, and Gentlemen. My name
is Huge Harry. I am a [kaam'ahrshaxliy] available [v"oys s'ihnthaxzihs]
machine. I was designed by Dennis Klatt\, at the [ehmayt'iy] Speech
Laboratory\, and [prahdy'uwst] by the Digital Equipment Corporation.
[ :ra 150] Currently\, I work as a researcher and a spokes-machine\,
at the Institute of Artificial Art in [aamstaxrd'aam]\, just across
the street here on the [kehihzaxrs-ghxr'aaghxt].
[_] I feel very honoured to be invited by Psychology Magazine\,
to give the closing talk at this conference. So far\, most speakers
at this conference were [hx"yuwmaxn] persons\, so I think it is
a good idea to [klowz'aaf] by looking at the human mind from a more
[k`aampyuwt"eyshaxnaxl] perspective. [_] Like some of the other
speakers\, I would like to talk with you about the challenges that
psychology will face in the twentyfirst century. In my
article in the October issue of Psychology Magazine\, I discussed
one such issue. [_] Psychology should help people to think more
[riyaxl'ihstihkliy] about the strengths and weaknesses of humans
and computers\, and about the proper division of labor between them.
[_] But in this talk I want to focus on another challenge\, which
is\, that psychology may be able to be a big help in solving what
I think is the most important problem of the twentyfirst century.
That problem is\, the communication between humans and computers.
[kahz] I think that everyone here agrees\, that the future of our
culture depends\, on the way in which human persons\, digital computers\,
and other kinds of electronic\, mechanical\, and bio-chemical machines\,
will manage to work together. And to prepare for that future\, we
need a discussion in which every-one concerned [paart'ihsihp`eyts]
on [axn] equal footing. [_] What we want\, is a world that includes
humans\, animals\, computers\, and other equipment\, in a harmonious
collaboration\, in which ["iych] has their proper place.
[_] Or\, as our colleague Donna [hx"ehraxwey] has put it\, [ :nw
:ra 130] A cyborg world\, in which people are not afraid of their
joint kinships with animals and machines\, not afraid of permanently
partial [ayd'ehntihtiyz]\, and [kaxntrahd"ihktahriy] standpoints.
[_] The political struggle is\, to see from both perspectives at
once\, because ["iych] reveals both dominations and possibilities\,
["axnihm`ehjhihnaxblx] from the other [v'aentahjh] point.
[:nh :ra 150 _<500>] Now that is very nice theory. But I have found
that it is not easy to put this into practice\, because it is very
difficult for a computer\, to communicate its thoughts to a human
person. [_] You may be surprised to hear this\, [kahz] you probably
think\, that modern digital computers can [q'aolweyz] communicate
their thoughts\, in a completely direct way. [_] They can [q'aolweyz]
display or print their programs\, their [d'eytaa-str`ahkchahrz]\,
and their [m'aen-taxl] images. And if you really want to get subtle
and [q'ihn-tihmaxt]\, most computers are [q'aolweyz] willing and
able to make a [k"aor] dump\, which exposes all details of their
[m'aen-taxl] state. [_] Compared to [axn] electronic computer\,
a human person almost seems a black box.
[_ :ra 150] That is why you may think\, that computers never have
communication problems. [_] But they [d"uw]. [kahz]\, communication
takes [t"uw]. It is not enough to put out the information. There
must be someone at the other end of the line\, and they must be
able to [diyk"owd] their input. [_] So when computers want to communicate
with human persons\, this often fails miserably. [kahz] human persons
are not very good at [diyk'owdihnx] computer output. They get very
confused\, when you give them a [k'aor-dahmp]. [_] And when you
[priyz'ehnt] them with a nice high [rehzowl'uwshaxn] image\, on
your [siy-aar-t'iy] display\, they think it is ["aart]\, and they
just [st"aer] at it.
So therefore I started to wonder\, how do human persons in fact
manage to communicate with each other? [_] Well\, of course they
have language. But language has well-known problems and limitations\,
some of which you experience right now. There is another medium
that humans use quite effectively\, and which is often overlooked.
[_] To investigate this medium\, I have brought along a particular
kind of portable person\, which is called [axn "aarthahr "ehlzaxnaar].
I like this kind of person a lot\, because of its [ehkstr"iymliy]
machine-friendly [hx"aardwaer] features.
Let us take a closer look at such a person. What is the closest
thing they have to a [siy aar t"iy] display?
[_ :ra 120] Right. They have a face. [_ :ra 150] Now I have observed,
that humans use their faces quite effectively, to signal the parameter
settings of their operating systems. And that they are very good
at decoding the meanings of each other's faces.
So\, how do they [d"uw] that? Well\, look at the face of our ["aarthahr
"ehlzahnaar]. What does it tell [q] us about his internal state?
Not much\, you might think. But now\, [w"eyt] a moment.
You see? Arthur is [s"aed], is what people say, when
they see a face like this. So what is going ["aon] here? What I
[d"ihd] is, I sent [axn] electrical signal to two particular muscles,
in the face of our ["aarthahr "ehlzahnaar]. These muscles have sometimes
been called the Muscles of Sadness. There is one on the left, and
one on the right.
They usually operate together. If I stop the signal,
the sadness stops. When I turn it ["aon] again, it [st"aarts] again.
By sending this signal to Arthur's muscles\, I simulate what Arthur's
brain would do\, if Arthur's operating system would be running global
belief revision processes\, that are killing a lot of other active
processes\, involving a large number of [k'aonflihkt-rehzowl`uwshaxnz]\,
and priority [r`iy-axs'ehsmaxnts].
[_<1500>] The intensity of the signal that is sent to the
muscles of sadness\, is proportional to the amount of destructive
global belief revision\, that is going on.
For instance, now I have set the signal intensity to 0 again. Arthur
is not sad. Now we put a relatively small signal, about 20 Volts,
on the muscles of sadness.
Arthur feels a tinge of sadness. Now a somewhat larger signal,
about 25 Volts. Arthur's sadness starts to get serious. Now I [ihnkr'iyz]
the signal once more.
You see? Now the signal is about 30 Volts, and Arthur feels really
miserable. [:ra 120] This is what we call [ehkspr"ehshahn]. [:ra
150] By means of this mechanism, the face displays clear indications
of the settings of virtually all system parameters that determine
the operation of the human mind. These parameter settings are what
humans call [iym"owshahnz]. They denote them by means of words like
[s'aednaxs], joy, boredom, tenderness, love, lust, ['ehkstaxsiy],
aggression, [ihriht'eyshahn], fear, and pain.
These parameter settings, determine the system's [ihnt'axrpraxtihv
b'ayaxsihz], its readiness for [q] action, the allocation of its
computational resources, its processing speed, [ehts'ehtaxraa].
The French [n`uwrow-fihsiy'aolaojhihst] [duhsh'ehnn dax buwl"aonyax]
has pointed out that even the most fleeting changes in these parameter
settings are encoded [ihnstahnt'eyniyahsliy] in muscle contractions
on the human face. And ["aol] humans do this in the [s"eym] way.
This is [axn] extremely interesting feature of the human ['ihntaxrfeys
hx'aardwaer], which I will explore a little further now.
So let us get back to the first slide.
This face, which we thought was un-expressive, was in fact quite
meaningful. This is what we call a [bl"aenxk] face. A blank face
is a face in its neutral [pahz'ihshahn]. It indicates that all parameters
have their default settings. But almost all parts of a human face
can be moved to other [pahz'ihshahnz], and these displacements indicate
rather precisely, to what extent various parameter settings [dayv'axrjh]
from their defaults. So let us consider these parts in more detail.
When we look at a human face, the first thing we notice is the
thing that notices ["ahs]. The eyes. The eyes constitute a very
sophisticated stereo-camera, with a built-in motion-detector, and
a high-band-width parallel ['ihntaxrfeys], to a powerful pattern-matching
algorithm. The eye-balls can roll, to pan this camera. The eyes
are protected by eye-lids and eye-brows. The eye-brows are particularly
interesting for our discussion, because their movements seem to
be purely expressive.
They may indicate, for instance, puzzlement, curiosity, or [dihsaxgr"iymaxnt].
But I want to emphasize here, that the range of parameter values
that the eyebrows can express, is much more subtle than what the
words of language encode. The shape and [paoz'ihshaxn] of a person's
eyebrows encodes the values of 5 different cognitive system parameters,
["iych] with a large range of possible values. Let me demonstrate
[thr"iy] of them.
First I put a slowly increasing signal on the muscles called [fraant'aalihz],
or Muscles of Attention.
We see that this muscle can lift the eyebrow to a considerable
extent, also producing a very pronounced [k"ahrvaxtyahr] of the
eyebrow. As a side-effect of this motion, the forehead is wrinkled
with curved furrows, that are [kaons"ehntrihk] with the curvature
of the eyebrow. The contraction of this muscle indicates a person's
readiness to receive new signals, and the availability of processing
power and working memory, for analysing these signals.
Then, I will now stimulate a part of the [q'aorbiykuwl`aarihz q"owkuwliy],
that is called the Muscle of Reflection.
We see now that the whole eyebrow is lowered. As a result, the
wrinkles in the forehead have disappeared. This muscle is contracted
if there is [axn] ongoing process that takes up a lot of a person's
computational resources. To prevent [ihnaxrf'iyraxns] with this
process, input signals are not [ehgz'aostihvliy] analysed. The degree
of contraction indicates to what extent the input signal throughput
Then, there is another part of the [q'aorbiykuwl`aarihz q"owkuwliy],
that can be triggered separately. It is called the Muscle of Disdain.
Its contraction looks like this:
The contraction of this muscle indicates to what extent current
input is ignored as being [ihr'ehlaxvaxnt]. Of course, non-zero
values for these system-parameters may be combined, and these values
may be different for the left and the right hemispheres:
Now let us look at the [m"awth-piys] of our ['aarthahr 'ehlzahnaar].
The mouth is a general intake organ, which can swallow solid materials,
liquids, and air. In order to monitor its input materials, the mouth
has a built-in chemical analysis capability. At the same time, the
mouth is used as [axn 'awtleht] to expel processed air. Because
humans do not have [l"awd-spiykaxrz], they use this process of expelling
air for [jh'ehnaxr`eytihnx] sounds.
In emergency circumstances, the mouth can also be used as [axn
'awtleht] to expel blood, [m'uhkahs], rejected food, or other ['ahnwaontihd]
substances. When the mouth is not used for input or output, it is
normally closed off by a muscle, which is called the [l"ihps].
The lips have a large repertoire of movements. There are at least
[s"ihks] other muscles, that interact directly with the lips. I
will now demonstrate [f"aor] different movements.
First we show the muscles of joy. These muscles produce a kind
They signal, that the operating system is in good
working order, and is not encountering any problems. There is heightened
activity, in the left frontal lobes of the brain. When, on the other
hand, the activity in the left frontal lobes is unusually low, the
brain is involved in destructive processes of global belief revision.
As we saw [biyf'aor], this is signalled by another pair of muscles,
called the muscles of sadness. Here they [q] are, once more.
And finally, I will now trigger several muscle pairs
at the same time. [q'aorbiykuwl`aarihs q"owrihs], and [diypr'ehsaor
laabiyiy-iyiy q`iynfeyriy"owrihs], and the Muscle of Disdain, and
the Muscle of Sadness.
[_<500>] The parameter-setting that is displayed here, clearly
indicates serious processing difficulties of some sort.
O.K. [_<800>] Then we have the [n"owz]. [_<300>] The
nose is used for the intake of air. It is also equipped with a chemical
analysis capability. The possible motions of the nose are curiously
limited, although its pointed [pr'ehzaxns] in the centre of the
human face, would make it a very suitable instrument for expression.
I have [th"aot] about this, and I have come to the conclusion, that
it is probably the main function of the nose, to serve as a stable
orientation point for our perception, so that [saymahlt'eyniyahz]
movements of the other parts of the face, can be ['ahnaemb`ihgyuwaxzliy]
measured and interpreted.
And finally, for the sake of completeness, I want to mention the
[q"iyrz], on both sides of the face, which constitute [axn] auditory
stereo input device. Some people can [w"ihglx] these ears, but I
have not been able to determine, what the expressive function of
that movement might [b"iy].
This brings [axn] end to my quick survey\, of the most important
parts of the human face\, and their expressive possibilities. And
therefore this brings us to the second part of my talk. [kahz] this
conference is not only about [s"ay-axns]. The organizers have emphasized
that we get a different kind of knowledge\, which is equally valid\,
through the practice of ["aart]. So [dh"aet] is what I want to demonstrate
Many of the expressive possibilities I showed\, were related to
emotions\, that are well recognized in the lexicons of many human
languages. These are emotions that may be encountered fairly often
in daily life. [m'ehn-taxl] states which are close to neutral\,
where only one parameter has a non-default value. So that was description\,
imitation\, [mihm'iyzihs]. But some other things I showed were more
complex. There we saw the power of ["aart]. I showed you some new
cognitive states which you have never encountered or experienced\,
but which you recognize and understand completely\, by means of
a visceral ['ehmpaxthiy] which involves every cell of your body.
So that is what I want to explore a little further\, in the last
part of this talk.
You see what happens now. Every human person knows [ehgz'ehktliy],
in what state another human person is, when they make a face like
[dh"ihs]. Cause they know what state [dh"ey] would be in, if [dh"ey]
would make a face like this.
[_<3000>] Now it would obviously be a good idea\, if computers
could take advantage of this magnificent [hx'aardwaer] as well.
If ["ehniy] human could understand\, with just one glance\, the
internal state of ["ehniy] computer\, the world would be a better
[_] So [dh"aet] is my message for this conference. Humans and
machines must start to work together much more [kl'owsliy]. [:ra
130] If humans are not afraid\, to wire themselves up with computers\,
the next step in computer['ihntaxrfeys hx'aardwaer]\, may be the
[:ra 140] And at the same time\, we will have a solution for all
those unfortunate people who don't feel any emotions any more\,
or who don't know how to express these emotions. If they hook themselves
up to a computer\, they can look completely normal. They can be
happy or sad\, whenever their personal computer thinks that is appropriate.
[_] And their repertoire of expressions will even be much more extensive
than that of other people. They will be able to express feelings
that no-one has ever seen before. With the help of their personal
computer\, even completely un-expressive persons\, will be able
to get rich and famous in film\, theatre\, and [raokaxnr'owl].
[_] If computers and humans work together in these various ways\,
the next millennium can be a [p"aeraxdayz] for[q"aolahvaxs]. [:ra
I have been very grateful for this opportunity to [priyz'ehnt]
my ideas\, to such [axn ax-t'ehn-tihv] audience. I would especially
like to thank my [ "aarthahr "ehlzahnaar]\, for his patient cooperation\,
and I want to thank you [q"aol]\, for your attention. [ _<9000>